Understanding NEAR Protocol: Create your own Smart Contract Development with TypeScript and near-sdk-js

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Smart contracts powered by NEAR Protocol are at the forefront of decentralized application development. In this article, we delve into the advanced features of TypeScript and near-sdk-js, exploring error handling, batch transactions, cross-contract calls, promises, and more. Additionally, we’ll discuss testing strategies, deployment considerations, and outline a roadmap for future improvements.

Section 1: Understanding Smart Contracts and NEAR Protocol:

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. NEAR Protocol provides a scalable and developer-friendly environment for building decentralized applications (DApps). The platform’s advantages include scalability, low transaction costs, and a robust developer ecosystem.

Section 2: TypeScript and its Role in Smart Contract Development:

TypeScript, a superset of JavaScript, brings static typing to the development process. Its benefits, such as enhanced code readability and maintainability, make it an excellent choice for smart contract development. TypeScript empowers developers to catch potential errors early in the development cycle.

Section 3: Setting Up the Development Environment:

Setting up a development environment for NEAR Protocol involves installing necessary dependencies like Node.js and the NEAR CLI. These tools facilitate the compilation and deployment of smart contracts.

Section 4: Writing a Simple Smart Contract with TypeScript:

In our introductory contract, we create a Lucky Number game, allowing users to participate, guess LuckyNumbernumbers, and win prizes. The contract includes features such as user registration, generating random numbers, and purchasing tickets for different games. This contract is created base on https://github.com/near-examples/cross-contract-hello-js . I think the best way to learn something is The best way to learn something is by imitation. I have read and reproduced many smart contracts from https://github.com/near-examples. That helps me learn and understand faster than just reading theory. Here is some captures about my first contract code: LuckyNumber

Section 5: Deploying and Testing the Smart Contract:

Deployment of smart contracts on NEAR Protocol is seamless. We highlight the importance of testing using tools like Jest to ensure the correctness of the code. Smart contract testing involves verifying the functionality of each component and handling edge cases.

Section 6: Advanced Smart Contract Development with TypeScript:

After understanding how it works clearly, I created a smart contract based on my idea that people can ask and answer, the special thing is that it has a reward system to encourage everyone. This is my contract structure:

For details about my code, you can access my github: https://github.com/hardAndHarder/AnswerIncentiveExchange

6.1 Error Handling and Assert Statements:

Smart contracts need robust error handling. The assert statements in my contracts ensure that conditions are met, safeguarding against unexpected behaviors. For instance, we use assert to check account balances before executing certain functions along with some new processing techniques. This is contract structure:

6.2 Batch Transactions:

Batch transactions optimize gas costs and reduce storage reads/writes. In my contracts, we utilize batch transactions to bundle multiple actions, enhancing efficiency and reducing transaction costs.

6.3 Cross-Contract Calls:

My contracts showcase the power of cross-contract calls. By interacting with other contracts, we demonstrate a modular approach and code reuse. This fosters a collaborative and scalable smart contract ecosystem.

6.4 Promises and Callbacks:

Promises and callbacks are fundamental to handling asynchronous operations. In my contracts, we utilize promises for batch transactions and callbacks to manage external interactions. These features enhance the contract’s responsiveness and interoperability.

6.5 Access Control:

Access control is crucial for security. We implement mechanisms to control access, ensuring that specific functions are restricted to authorized accounts. This adds an essential layer of protection to my smart contracts.

Section 7: Testing and Deployment Strategies:

7.1 Testing Smart Contracts:

To ensure the reliability of my contracts, we employ rigorous testing. Leveraging testing frameworks and methodologies, we verify the correctness of our code. Comprehensive testing is indispensable for the development lifecycle.

7.2 Deployment Considerations:

Deploying smart contracts involves considerations such as gas fees and deployment time. Sharing insights from our deployment process, we discuss challenges faced and provide tips for a seamless deployment on the NEAR Protocol.

Section 8: Future Improvements and Roadmap:

As my smart contracts evolve, we envision future improvements. Our roadmap includes enhancing user experiences, implementing additional features, and contributing to the growing NEAR community. Stay tuned for exciting updates and advancements.


In mastering NEAR Protocol smart contract development, TypeScript and near-sdk-js prove to be formidable tools. Through error handling, batch transactions, cross-contract calls, and other advanced features, we’ve demonstrated the versatility of smart contracts on NEAR. As you explore the provided code, embrace testing strategies, and navigate deployment considerations, remember that the journey doesn’t end here. The NEAR community welcomes your contributions and encourages the continual evolution of decentralized applications.

Resources and Further Learning:


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15 thoughts on “Understanding NEAR Protocol: Create your own Smart Contract Development with TypeScript and near-sdk-js”

  1. I would love to learn JavaScript and rust programming. I plan to interact with my site with blockchain to provide services to my customers.

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