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Unit Tests

Testing contract functionality can be done through the cargo test framework. These tests will run with a mocked blockchain and will allow testing function calls directly without having to set up/deploy to a network and sign serialized transactions on this network.

A common framework for tests, along with setting up a basic testing environment looks like:

#[cfg(all(test, not(target_arch = "wasm32")))]
mod tests {
    use super::*;
    use near_sdk::test_utils::VMContextBuilder;
    use near_sdk::{testing_env, VMContext};

    fn get_context(is_view: bool) -> VMContext {

    fn my_test() {
        let context = get_context(false);
        // ... Write test here

Where VMContextBuilder allows for modifying the context of the mocked blockchain to simulate the environment that a transaction would be run. The documentation for what can be modified with this context can be found here.

The testing_env! macro will initialize the blockchain interface with the VMContext which is either initialized through VMContextBuilder or manually through itself.

::info Note

This testing_env! and VMContext is only used for testing outside of wasm environments. When running the built contract on a network in a wasm environment, the context from the blockchain will be used through host functions on the runtime.


To test read-only function calls, set is_view to true on the VMContext. This will test to verify that function calls which just read state do not try to modify state through unit tests. In the above example, true should be passed into the get_context call, which initializes the context as read-only.

You will want to use testing_env! each time you need to update this context, such as mocking the predecessor_accound_id to simulate the functions being called by or only allowing view operations as mentioned above. Each time this is done, a new mocked blockchain will be initialized while keeping the existing state.

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