Papers

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The NEAR White Paper
This document describes the approach NEAR takes to designing and implementing the core technology of its system.

Economics in a Sharded Blockchain
Incentives are a crucial part of any decentralized protocol. In this paper, we review the specific economic decisions that must be made, and the logic behind them.

Sharding Design: Nightshade
This document outlines the general approach to blockchain sharding, the major problems that need to be overcome, including state validity and data availability problems, and presents Nightshade, the solution NEAR Protocol is built upon that addresses those issues.

Fast Finality: Proof of Space-Time
We present a design for a fork choice rule, Sybil resistance mechanism and finality gadget that collectively provide fast finality, resistance to long range attacks, and discourage pooling. The design is based on both proof of stake and proof of space time, and uses a finality gadget similar to Casper FFG.

NEAR Randomness
We present a randomness beacon scheme that is unpredictable and unbiasable for as long as more than 1/3 of participants follow the protocol, is live for as long as 2/3 of participants follow the protocol, doesn’t depend on verifiable delay functions and doesn’t require distributed key generation.

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